What is Temper in Welding?

Temper, also known as hardness, is a measure of the resistance of a material to deformation. The higher the temper, the more resistant the material is to deformation. In welding, temper is a measure of the degree of hardness of the welded metal. The harder the weld metal, the more resistant it is to cracking and other forms of weld failure.

How to measure temper?

There are two main ways to measure temper in welding: the Rockwell hardness test and the Vickers hardness test. The Rockwell hardness test is the most common way to measure temper in welding. It measures the depth of penetration of an indentor into the weld metal. The Vickers hardness test is less common, but it is more accurate. It measures the hardness of the weld metal by measuring the resistance of the metal to indentation.

The temper of a weld can be affected by many factors, including:

  • the type of metal being welded,
  • the welding process,
  • the heat input,
  • and the cooling rate.

In general, higher temperatures and faster cooling rates will result in higher tempers.

Rockwell hardness scale

Welding tempers are usually expressed in terms of the Rockwell hardness scale. The most common scales are:

  • the B scale (Brinell),
  • the C scale (carbon),
  • and the Vickers (Vick) scale.

The B scale is used for ferrous metals, such as steel, and the C scale is used for non-ferrous metals, such as aluminum. The Vickers scale can be used for both ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

Half bead welding technique

It is a good way to control the heat input and the cooling rate, and thus the temper of the weld. In this technique, the welder starts by making a small bead on one side of the joint. Then, he or she moves the gun to the other side of the joint and makes another small bead. The two beads are then joined together by making a single pass over the entire joint. This technique is often used in welding thin metals, such as sheet metal.


It is a heat treatment process that is applied to ferrous alloys, such as steel or cast iron, to increase their strength and hardness. The process involves heating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling it at a controlled rate.

Related Links

Tempering (metallurgy)
How to Temper Steel: 7 Steps (with Pictures)
Difference Between Annealing and Tempering | Metal Supermarkets – Steel, Aluminum, Stainless, Hot-Rolled, Cold-Rolled, Alloy, Carbon, Galvanized, Brass, Bronze, Copper

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