The angle less than 90 degrees between a line that is perpendicular to the cylindrical pipe surface at the point of intersection of the weld axis and the extension of the electrode axis, and a plane determined by the electrode axis and a line tangent to the pipe at the same point. In a T-joint, the line is perpendicular to the non-butting member. This angle can also be used to partially define the position of guns, torches, rods and beams.

An assembly used to hold the workpiece, generally using hydraulic pressure for clamping force.

The capacity of a material to harden as the result of cold rolling or other cold working involving deformation of the metal such as forming, bending, or drawing.

The electric conductor between the source of arc welding current and the work.

An apparatus for supplying current and voltage suitable for welding